From around the world, resources are available for public domain download, to assist in developing Stress Management products.  Materials on this page include photos, documents, and films.  Refer back to the "CH Hughes products" webpage, and note the "Combat Stress" PDF's and videos, to see how to incorporate these materials into a usable category and teaching module.

There are also resources on this page Secondary School teachers can use with their students to enhance the study of World War I & II.  Short videos and podcasts are available from the public domain, as well as primary source materials on this page. Consideration should be given to using the Kokoda Track, Battle of Singapore, POWs, and Vietnam sections as separate teaching modules.  Sections of instruction could also include terrain, environment, native inhabitants, geography, weather, etc.  Instructors can use these materials in PowerPoint presentations.

There is also a music section for WW1 & 2, which covers the main pieces of music that were used to boost the morale of soldiers in those two wars.  Instructors should consider using these videos to enhance the study of those historical periods for their students.

There is a section on this page, near the bottom, dealing with Combat Stress in the Civil War.

Also, near the bottom of the page, there are brief general articles dealing with Combat Stress, Shell Shock, and the role of weather and environment affecting troops.

A separate study of Pearl Harbor is available on the webpage "Jim & Joe in College" in the section that deals with Joe's graduate work at the University of Richmond on Pre-Pearl Harbor Intelligence. The research in that section covers not only American, but British, Australian, and Dutch intelligence assets.
This webpage features Australian and New Zealand soldiers at war; with some emphasis on British, Canadian, and U.S. Soldiers.

Another webpage, "CH Hughes products" deals with stress issues faced by American service personnel.
Many photos are courtesy of the Australian War Memorial. Another great resource for instructors is The Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Australia, where you will find many audio, visual, and written primary resources.

In doing research for this page, I found a stronger bond of 'Mateship' between Australian 'Diggers' (as their soldiers are known) than between American Soldiers. Those from New Zealand were known as "Kiwis".  ANZAC is a term that refers to both Australian and New Zealand soldiers. (Australian New Zealand Army Corps).

Thee is a sense of comradeship between American Soldiers in the field, but it was not as strong and did not last long after returning home from rotation to a war zone; or after retirement.  Other than VFW and American Legion, plus a few disabled vet organizations, there are few permanent associations for U.S. combat veterans with ongoing organizations and public participation events.
Yet today, in the 21st Century, the average Aussie will refer to another as 'Mate.'  And the number of 'Digger' organizations and associations is numerous, and they participate through annual ANZAC Day and Australia Day marches/parades in all the major and minor cities and towns. In addition, the children, wives, grandchildren, and extended family all turn out for these events and support these associations, which hold their own individual events.  Their media outlets cover these events 'religiously,' unlike the media in the U.S.  

The typical Australian sees the importance in supporting these events and associations.  They have a sense of pride and sincere desire for participation that is evident, even when the public events had to be scaled back due to the 2020 pandemic.  One website sums it up succinctly: "Our aim is to perpetuate the camaraderie that was generated amongst us when we served."  Well said.

While the U.S. Vietnam-era vets had numerous websites run by individuals and small groups post-the Vietnam war,  they have been in decline since 2008.  Many of these websites are now extinct and no longer exist.  Some sites have 'changed hands' or have attached themselves to other larger sites and have been 'watered down'.  This is unfortunate, as they were once a rich resource for research.

I have also included a section about Australian Chaplains in WW 1.
Before continuing, a word about careful research by the instructor.  I have discovered numerous websites what 
have outright false information, either by design or by careless unintentional error. There is one site that has a high-sounding name that supposedly gives 
the public correct information about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor; but has a hidden agenda of pushing their own philosophy, which is incorrect.

Here is another example of careless handling of information that can be 
found on many websites.  This website tried to make a list, with photos, of all underage boy soldiers:
Several years ago, I did extensive research on the Royal Flying Corps and corresponded with the high school 
Albert Ball attended.  He is remembered as one of the first 'Aces' of WW1.  Here are some pictures of him, including one on the cover of a book about WW1 flying:
The researcher must also be careful about some authors who have a subrosa agenda.  They have attempted to disprove the truth of a particular battle or concept.  Here is one online report concerning this problem.
Glossary of Australian Terms
Identification of Diggers and Kiwi's in combat photos can be made by looking 
at dog tags (also called 'meat tickets' by the Diggers); and hats.
Another Digger with the Australian-type of 
dog tags, which are round shaped:
This American GI has rectangle-shaped dog tags, encased in a black rubber holder to silence them while moving in enemy territory.
Here's a song about the Digger hat, from the film "The Digger":
"Australians at War" - Vietnam - Film Series
Additional films for use in the classroom:
"The Last Enemy" A film series
Prior to Pearl Harbor, there was one man who predicted a war in the Pacific: 
Hector C. Bywater.
Bywater was a profilic writer of news stories.  Here are a sample:
"Sacrifice at Pearl Harbor"
is a special BBC film series in public domain, that I highly recommend. 

As mentioned above, additional 
resources about Pre-Pearl Harbor intelligence can be found on the 
webpage "Jim & Joe in College" which has more audio & visual aids to teach a section on Pearl Harbor.  
Those resources cover U.S., British, Dutch, and Australian military information.
Additional sound resources from the Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne, Australia:

Wodonga Regional Lecture: Spirit of the Digger 

Shrine of Remembrance

Tuesday 20 May 2014 - Mr Patrick Lindsay


The Anzac spirit forms the bedrock of the Australian and New Zealand national characters. It was forged from a mateship which grew into something greater than the shared experiences of brothers-in-arms.


The Gallipoli Campaign was a kind of crusade and a national rite of passage for three of the countries involved:  Turkey, Australia and New Zealand.  Each emerged from the devastating losses with an enhanced international reputation and its image clarified in its national consciousness.


Patrick Lindsay is one of Australia’s leading non-fiction authors. He spent 25 years as a journalist and TV presenter before he began writing full-time in 2001.


Since then he has written 20 books, including the best-sellers, The Spirit of Kokoda, The Spirit of The Digger, The Spirit of Gallipoli, Fromelles, Our Darkest Day, Cosgrove …Portrait of a Leader, The Coast Watchers and True Blue.


Much of his work explores the pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that makes up what it means to be an Australian.  He sees the Anzac Spirit as a key piece of the puzzle.

Mr. Lindsay also presented another lecture: "The Spirit of Kokoda":
Consider Monuments to past leaders.

Monument to William Wallace:

Wallace in this monument at Glasgow, Scotland is....
the standard-issue freedom fighter of the imagination with:     

* The Give ‘em hell whiskers,
* The Save-me-Jesus eyes, and
* The hamstrings from hell.

Wallace was not a one-man campaign. We don’t know if he could have been a stuntman for Mel Gibson in the movie “Braveheart,” but his epic romance refuses to go away.

It is important for young officers, as Patton once said, to study the biographies of great and near-great military leaders of history in order to learn and add to your storehouse-knowledge of tactics, strategy, and leadership.

Photographs from the field of battle tell us a lot about a soldier, either as an individual or as a group.  The Berserk soldier is often identified in these.
Soldiers who went rogue or berserk had different ways of showing it. Some American GIs collected ears off of dead VC and wore them as badges of achievement.  I did not find any documentation that Diggers were involved in this.
This next picture shows a South Vietnamese soldier abusing a VC:
Some U.S. GI's got so numbed by the war, they could sit and eat lunch surrounded by dead VC:
American GI in WW2:
Captured VC by Diggers:
Captured VC by U.S. soldiers:
In the picture below:

A Vietnamese girl, 23 years old, was captured by an Australian patrol 30 feet below ground at the end of a maze of tunnels some 10 miles west of the headquarters of the Australian task force (40 miles southeast of Saigon). The woman was crouched over a World War II radio set. About seven male Viet Cong took off when the Australians appeared—but the woman remained and appeared to be trying to conceal the radio set. She was taken back to the Australian headquarters where she told under sharp interrogation (which included a “waterprobe”; see her wet clothes after the interrogation) that she worked as a Viet Cong nurse in the village of Hoa Long and had been in the tunnel for 10 days. The Australians did not believe her because she seemed to lack any medical knowledge. They thought that she may have possibly been the leader of the political cell in Long Hoa. She was being led away after interrogation, clothes soaked from the “waterprobe” on October 29, 1966. (AP)

Diggers with captured Japanese:
General Westmoreland inspects Australian soldiers:
Checking on wounded Japanese:
The next photo of "Bull" Allen, illustrates "Mateship" from an Australian soldier perspective.  One's "mates" or as an American would say, "comrades" was important to the Diggers.  Bonding between Mates, i.e, friends, would last a lifetime.
The Bull Allen story:
The photo of Bull Allen was chosen for the cover of a book that detailed the horror of war:
Taking care of one's Mates has a long history in the Australian Army.  Here, a World War 1 soldier carries a wounded soldier off the battlefield:
Other photos from WW2, WW1, Vietnam:
Before Kokoda and New Guinea, Australian involvement in World War 2 began in the Far East with the loss of thousands of troops taken prisoner by the Japanese after the fall of Singapore.  British leadership was a shambles.
Thanks to two British aviation experts who gave military secrets to Japan, the fall of Singapore and attack on Pearl Harbor was inevitable.  
The following
film series, now in public domain, explains what happened starting 
as early as 1920:
OUTRAM ROAD, below, is duplicate:
The book, "Vietnam Vanguard" is now online for free at the National Australian Press website:

As previously mentioned in the introduction to this page, there are very few U.S. unit associations still active and online with their own websites.  But with the Diggers, it's different.  Here is one which gives you an idea of what life was like in Vietnam, with one of those, the 3RAR.  
Pictures from their 1971 tour:
Films from the 3RAR, 1971 tour:
Tropical heat in the Pacific jungle was so intense, that even senior leaders went shirtless:
Work in a Jungle environment was hot, dirty, disease-ridden, and dangerous. Diggers went shirtless, and were not self-conscious about being naked like their American counterparts, and could only cool off and take a bath in a nearby stream or river:
Diggers can be seen swimming in the river below:
Diggers also had their own swimming pool to relax in:
U.S. GIs also headed to their own designated beaches; next 3 photos:
Diggers associated with locals; 
some who worked on their base:
One former U.S.Sergeant put this information online about showering concerns by Basic Trainees:
Shirtless Australian soldiers? Naked in a stream or lake? It's really no big deal for Australian Army & Navy individuals.  But seems so for some in the U.S. Army; and that's what I found doing research for this webpage, and on the "CH Hughes products" page, which is exclusively about U.S. Soldiers.  From first-hand research, there were always some AIT (Advanced Individual Training) U.S. Soldiers sent to the Chaplain about this and related issues, such as 'open-bay barracks.' Most recruits adapted to their new environment and didn't whine about wanting a private room.  Some, however, wouldn't make it in the Australian SAS units:
See the Australian film, "The Odd Angry Shot" for a good view of how Aussie soldiers dealt with this and other issues, including death of a mate, the environment, and interaction with their Padre (Chaplain).  It's not as tense or graphic as "The Battle of Long Tan," but still covers many issues of how the Diggers got along with each other from start of their tour to return home and can be found in Youtube online.

Here are two film reviews of "The Odd Angry Shot":
There are several other excellent films produced by Australian film companies that deserve a look:
"The Digger" is one film that is a must-see.  It explains the culture behind the name given to the Australian soldier and is outstanding in taking the viewer on a tour of every major battlefield where their influence was felt.  It is worth the investment and is an excellent resource for both military and secondary school instructors.  My highest recommendation.
For an Australian produced TV drama series set before and during WW2, I suggest "The Sullivans" which follows a family with sons who go off to war:
"Spy Force" was a great Australian drama TV series set during WW2 and dealt with Australian-based intelligence operatives in the Southwest Pacific.  Very realistic.
For a not-so-intense TV series about U.S Soldiers, "Tour Of Duty" was realistic:
Diggers who served in SAS unit; a dangerous assignment:
Australian Diggers didn't operate like U.S. Special Forces, seen here in live footage:
Men of the 39th Battalion, Australian, preparing to move out to the Kokoda Track:
There are 14 men camouflaged on the Kokoda Track in this picture.  Can you spot them all?
Diggers clearing brush and obstacles from the Kokoda airstrip:
Scenes from the Kokoda Track and the Fuzzy Wuzzy's carrying the wounded Australian soldiers and supplies:
Photo of "The Golden Stairs"; part of the Kokoda Track, 
made up of 2,000 timber steps:
Diggers captured by Japs, in next two photos:
Arnold Forrester:
Prior to the Kokoda Campaign, 
Lt. F.W. Winkle, Corporal Theo Wyatt, and Private Geoff Rowlands, spied out the area:
Australians also served in the dangerous job of Coastwatcher:
Stories of Service, courtesy of the Australian Government, Veterans Affairs:
On the Road to Mandalay
Private Errol Noack becomes the first national serviceman and member of 1ATF to die from enemy action. Private Noack was conscripted into the army for service in Vietnam. He was killed by enemy fire during Operation Hardihood on 24 May 1966 after only ten days service in Vietnam. Photo: The funeral of Private Errol Noack in Adelaide in 1965:
The Battle of Long Tan
The Cross at Long Tan battlefield
honoring Australian soldiers
4th Anniversary service at Long Tan:
Museum replica of Cross and inscription:

The brass plaque on the cross bore the simple inscription:

In memory of those
members of D Coy and
3 Tp 1 APC Sqn who gave
their lives near this
spot during the battle
of Long Tan on 18TH August 1966
Erected by 6RAR/NZ
(ANZAC) Bn 18 Aug 69.

Late afternoon August 18, 1966 South Vietnam — for three and a half hours, in the pouring rain, amid the mud and shattered trees of a rubber plantation called Long Tan, Major Harry Smith and his dispersed company of 108 young and mostly inexperienced Australian and New Zealand soldiers are fighting for their lives, holding off an overwhelming enemy force of 2,500 battle hardened Viet Cong and North Vietnamese soldiers. With their ammunition running out, their casualties mounting and the enemy massing for a final assault each man begins to search for his own answer — and the strength to triumph over an uncertain future with honor, decency and courage.

(from the Battle of Long Tan official website)

Private Paul Large bitten by Scorpion

During a break in a patrol, Private Paul Large from 12 Platoon, D Coy, 6RAR had been bitten by a scorpion – not the small translucent brown ones but one of the bigger, highly venomous solid black ones. In minutes Paul was in a bad way. He was sweating profusely and his eyes were losing focus. The medic gave him some pills but within 15 minutes his temperature was well up and so Platoon commander 2Lt Sabben determined he had to be sent out. Sabben radioed that he had a medical casualty and requested a Dustoff flight (medivac chopper). It took another 10-15 minutes to clear it in as there was artillery being fired in the area. The Dustoff landed in a swirl of dust and leaves in a nearby clearing and Paul was on his way to hospital. As he was being carried to the chopper Large said, ‘Hurrah for the Flying Doctor!’ Private Paul Large was the last Australian killed in the Battle of Long Tan.

Private Paul Large:

Francis Adrian Roberts talks about his experience in the battle of Long Tan:
New Zealand soldiers burying 
one of their own in Melaka, at the same cemetery the Aussie soldiers 
were buried in:
Diggers bury one of their own:
From an excellent website, teachers can find resources that emphasize the New Zealand perspective on Vietnam:
German prisoners (WW1) are marched back wearing gas masks:
Germans in WW2 captured by Diggers in the Western Desert:
Diggers have just learned that WW1 has ended:
One Digger had too much to drink and passed out:
US Marines often helped their 'Mates'.... did Aussie Diggers:
Soldiers often adopted animals found in their operating areas as pets or looked at with interest.
Note the Digger wearing a 'drive on rag':
Like their American counterparts, 
Diggers liked to show off for the camera:
Logan's (Hogan's) Heroes:
Some U.S. soldiers showed off:
Soldiers showing off for the camera can be traced back to the American Civil War:
Diggers liked their beer:
Interview with
Phillip "Pop" Rubie as a Private,
17th Battalion, AIF, 1915-1918
Anzac Cove, Gallipoli, and the beginning of the ANZAC legend:
A French soldier carrying his wounded comrade through a trench at Gallipoli:

Boy soldiers

During the First World War, the Australian Army's enlistment age was 21 years or 18 years with the permission of a parent or guardian. Although boys aged 14-17 could enlist as buglers, trumpeters and musicians, many gave false ages in order to join as soldiers. Their numbers are impossible to determine.

Enlistment of boys was normal practice for the Navy and several died on service during the First World War. Five of those who qualify for the Memorial's Roll of Honour were serving on the Sydney-based training ship HMAS Tingira.

Private James Charles ('Jim') Martin is the best known boy soldier. He is believed to be the youngest soldier on the Roll of Honour. Jim was 14 years 9 months old when he died at Gallipoli.

Jim Martin:

Reginald Garth, a 12 year old Perth boy who stowed away on the transport RMS Mooltan. His three brothers and father enlisted for the First World War and he wanted be part of what he thought might be an adventure.

Reginald Garth:

Several battles in the Gallipoli campaign were especially brutal, as seen in this photo of war dead at the Battle of Lone Pine:
Suggested reading about Gallipoli:
The father, left, served in WW1 -
his son, right, served in WW2:
A group of Diggers on leave while in Palestine, in a thermal bath:

"I would rather walk with a friend in the dark, 

than walk alone in the light".

-a typical Digger saying

Mena, Zeitoun, and Moascar were 
training camps in Egypt:
Soldiers climbed the pyramids:
Nearby village:
Australia in World War 1 & 2
included men of the
Light Horse

Australian Light Horse approach the Dead Sea, World War 1:

Light Horse camp, Palestine, WW1:

Watering horses at Elisha's Fountain, near the walls of ancient Jericho:

Diggers loading camels at a railhead in Palestine:
Diggers move through Jericho and Palestine:
Diggers playing "Two up" game of chance, a form of gambling:
Archive Films of the Light Horse 
in World War 1 and 2, Middle East:
Billy Sing, was an outstanding member 
of the Australian Light Horse.  
He was detailed to sniper duty:
Billy, on left of the next photo, with General Birdwood:



Mateship is an Australian cultural idiom that embodies equality, loyalty and friendship. There are two forms of mateship, the inclusive and the exclusive. The inclusive is in relation to a shared situation such as employment, sports, or hardship, whereas the exclusive type is toward a third party, like a person that you have just met. Russel Ward, in The Australian Legend, saw the concept as a central one to the Australian people. Mateship derives from mate, meaning friend, commonly used in Australia as a form of 'friendly' address. Mateship can also be expressed in qualities such as loyalty to one's mates.


Military Context

Mateship is regarded as an Australian military virtue. For instance, the Australian Army Recruit Training Centre lists the "soldierly qualities" it seeks to instill as including "a will to win, dedication to duty, honour, compassion, honesty, teamwork, loyalty, physical, moral courage and mateship itself. Mateship is vitally explored through a Military Context in the film 'Gallipoli', where Archy and Frank, two young Australian sprinters want to join the army to fulfill their sense of duty. Because they are too young, the pair hop a freight train to Perth, where they are allowed to join up. They board a troop ship heading to Cairo and after training in the shadows of the Great Pyramids, the boys are finally sent to the front line, where their speed makes them candidates for messengers in one of the war's bloodiest battles.

(From the "Meaning of Mateship" website).

“Mateship is uniquely Australian.  We are a country that celebrates individual achievement.  But above all, we are a country that knows we must pull together.  We are a country of mates.  Mateship is born out of a common struggle. 


Mateship is built in our workplaces, our schools, our homes, our sporting fields, out battlefields. 


Mateship is built on respect for each other. 


Mateship is built on respect for each other.  Mateship is extending a helping hand when another person is down on their luck. 


Mateship is trusting people equally, regardless of race, gender, creed or religion. 


Mateship endures because it is so readily embraced by all who come here.  I believe that true national leadership demands that Australian values are reinforced.  We should never shy away from reaffirming what makes us proudly and uniquely Australian.”

The Aussie Soldier who refused to let his Mate die alone:
Mateship developed early among Diggers, during their training:
Once in the field, Diggers would stick with each other during a deployment:
"HIDDEN HORRORS," is a detailed study of the Japanese brutal treatment of POWs, and the cannibalism they practiced; eating dead Australian soldiers.  This book is highly recommended for the coverage given to every aspect of Japanese cruelty, including the philosophy behind why they behaved as they did.  It covers cannibalism, which very few authors have researched.
Another hidden horror involved the 
brutal execution of Australian soldiers 
by the Japanese:
Japanese war crimes included 
prisoners bound and lined up 
for target practice:
Some prisoners were buried alive:
Some Diggers were placed in trenches and burned alive:
The photograph on the right, below, was discovered in the pocket of a Japanese soldier, and with it, the Australian war crimes commission was able to determine who the Digger was being executed and by whom:
Billy Young, joined the Australian army 
at age 15, and is the last surviving member of the Sandakan Japanese prisoner of war camp:
Australian POWs were sometimes put on Japanese ships for transport to a penal colony.  Often, unprotected, Allied submarines would target and sink these ships which did not display a Red Cross symbol, indicating sick or POW soldiers aboard.  This would result in more loss of life by the Diggers.
Submarine rescue; film taken from aboard the sub:

Even the most knowledgeable reader will be shocked by the extent of the crimes committed against servicemen and civilians revealed in this chilling new study. From the regular execution of POWs to the abandonment of survivors, Mark Felton takes a detailed look at this dark chapter in the history of the Japanese navy in World War II.


Prior to this account, Japanese war crimes at sea have received relatively little attention compared to coverage of the Japanese army's barbaric conduct. Written by a longtime resident of the Far East, this new work takes into account the culture that led to such appalling atrocities. Upon publication in the UK, the book drew major news coverage.

This book examines the period between the unconditional surrender of Japan on 14 August 1945, and the arrival of Allied liberation forces in Japanese-occupied territories after 2 September 1945. The delay handed the Japanese a golden opportunity to set their house in order before Allied war crimes investigators arrived. After 14 August groups of Allied POWs were brutally murdered. Vast amounts of documentation concerning crimes were burned ahead of the arrival of Allied forces. POW facilities and medical experimentation installations were either abandoned or destroyed.

Perhaps the greatest crimes were continuing deaths of Allied POWs from starvation, disease and ill-treatment after the Japanese surrender. The blame rests with the American authorities, and particularly General MacArthur, Supreme Allied Commander in the Pacific. MacArthur expressly forbade any Allied forces from liberating Japanese occupied territories before he had personally taken the formal Japanese surrender aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Vice Admiral Lord Mountbatten, Commanding Allied forces in Southeast Asia, protested against this policy, believing that pandering to MacArthur’s vanity and ego would mean condemning many starving and sick prisoners to death.

Deaths among British and Commonwealth POWs were significant as opposed to American POWs who were already largely liberated in the Philippines and elsewhere.

As an Australian and a ex serviceman, there is still a great deal of resentment of how Australians were treated by the Japanese during WW2, those who parents served in the Asia region cannot forget the brutal inhumane treatment received, our ANZAC reminds us of this, most young Japanese I have met, refuse to believe their forefathers committed war crimes and got away scot free, for me and many others it’s a personal stain on Japan that time cannot wash off, the only way for it to be ameliated is by open acknowledgment by the now Japanese govt that serious war crimes were committed and to be genuine remorse, somehow I do not envisage that happening, ever…..

Mark Felton describes the reasons why the Japanese soldiers were the most brutal during ww2.  It is well worth listening to in it's entirety:
Digger describes brutal life in Jap POW camp:

Stolen years: Australian prisoners of war

This commemorative publication looks at what captivity was like during wartime. This book draws on documents, photographs 

and artefacts. It covers Australian prisoners of war in the hands 

of six enemies across three conflicts. The Second South African (Boer) War, World War I and World War II.

Meanwhile, back in Australia, the Diggers had to deal with a breakout of Jap POWs from a camp at Cowra.
This film is now available online for free.
The following film is from the Cowra POW Camp Museum Visitors Center, and 
was placed in public domain online:
Remembering the Australians who returned from combat in Afghanistan:

This is a Combat Stress event that needs to be included in any study of the subject.  Attention should be given to the U.S. service members who lost their lives during that withdrawal, to the President who was condescending to their families at the ramp service, and to the service members from Australia, Britain, and the U.S. who lost friends in Afghanistan.
The way this was handled was a disgrace and embarrassment to our Allies.  
(Additional information and full coverage of this event and the other problems of the Biden administration, can be found on the "Woke - The New Religion" webpage).
Son of a Canadian Soldier killed in Afghanistan talks about his anger:
The Taliban: Power Performance
During WW1, there was, in England, the "Would-to-God Brigade:
In Australia, there was a Peace Alliance that formed:
The Moral Wounds of War
Combat Stress in the American Civil War:
From the above photo, note the soldier in the lower left (seen below) suffering from Shell Shock:
General Information about
Combat Stress
in Current and Previous Literature
From surveys of U.S. Soldiers, WW2:
For me, this last slide explains why Mateship among Diggers remained high after returning, but not for U.S. Soldiers:
Stress and Well-being in Military Organizations
from a research paper in public domain:
"The Firing Squad" - A Film featuring Australian soldiers, about moral choices that must be made.
The Rugged and Courageous
Australian Diggers
had a widespread reputation:
They may have been Larrikins, but when the going got tough, the Diggers knuckled down and got on with the business at hand.
Chaplain in gas mask:
Dr. Hugh Gough conducts service:
Jewish Chaplain field service:
Jewish Chaplain cap badge:
Jewish Chaplain's badge, later issue, front side:
Jewish Chaplain's cap badge, reverse side, later issue:
Chaplain's field kit:
Australian Chaplain's cap badge:
Australian Chaplain, note the Chaplain's cap badge:
British WW1 Chaplain's kit:
Canadian Chaplain's cap badge:
Group portrait of officers from the RAN light cruiser HMAS Sydney.  Chaplain Little is second from right, middle row:

Vivian Agincourt Spence Little was born to parents Edward Agincourt and Alice Little (Horley) on 5 April 1878. He received his education at Cleveland Street School and Sydney High School, before earning his Bachelor of Arts in 1903 and Masters of Arts in 1907 from Sydney University. He also earned a Bachelor of Letters from Oxford. In 1903, Reverend Little entered the Methodist Ministry..

In 1912, he joined the Royal Australian Navy and was appointed to HMAS Encounter and HMAS Cerberus. Reverend Little was the first non-Anglican Protestant chaplain to be appointed in the RAN. In July 1913, Little was appointed as chaplain for HMAS Sydney. He was serving on HMAS Sydney during the Battle of Rabaul and the battle with the SMS Emden on 9 November 1914. Reverend Little served on HMAS Sydney throughout the war and was discharged at his own request in June 1917.

In 1921, he married Ethel Maud Lock and they had two children, Beatrice Ethel Spence Little and Wardlow Agincourt Spence Little. In 1934, Reverend Vivian Little published the book The Christology of the apologists: doctrinal with an introduction by W. B. Selbie.

Vivian Agincourt Spence Little died on 25 March 1956 in Sydney, New South Wales.


Australian Chaplain's field notes from the war zone.  These diaries give detailed notes about many chaplains of various denominations, both in the field with the troops, and in the hospitals:
Here is an example of what's available:
The Australian War Memorial website 
has information about Chaplains in WW2 and later conflicts.
Australian Chaplains in Vietnam
Australian Chaplains in Afghanistan
James Gordon "Pop" Williams:
Memories of another ANZAC veteran, WW1:
Australian veterans describe their time on the Western Front, WW1:
ANZAC Light Horse soldier descendants return to Beersheba for a visit:
Alexander William Campbell
Gary McKay describes his combat experience in Vietnam
James Charles Martin

James Charles Martin was born at Tocumwal, New South Wales, on 3 January 1901. Keen for all things military, Jim joined the cadets at school and the year after leaving school he took up work as a farm hand. In 1915, Martin was eager to enlist with the Australian Imperial Force. His father had previously been rejected from service and Jim, the only male child of his family, was keen to serve in place of his father. Anyone under the age of 21 required written parental permission to enlist, and although Martin looked old for his age and his voice had broken he could not pass for a 21-year-old.

When Jim threatened to run away, join under another name and not to write to her if he succeeded in being deployed, his mother reluctantly gave her written permission for him to enlist. Martin succeeded in enlisting at the age of 14 years and 3 months, almost 4 years under the minimum age. After training for several months at Broadmeadows Camp, he departed with the 21st Infantry Battalion from Melbourne aboard HMAT Berrima on 28 June 1915.

From Egypt Martin and the other reinforcements of the 21st Battalion were deployed to Gallipoli. Their transport ship was torpedoed en route by a German submarine and Martin and several others spent hours in the water before being rescued. Martin eventually landed on Gallipoli in the early hours of 7 September and took up position near Wire Gully. In the following few months casualties from enemy action were slight, but the front-line work, short rations, sickness, flies, lice, and mosquitoes took their toll on the unit. Martin sent several letters to his parents from Gallipoli. In late October he contracted typhoid fever and was evacuated to hospital ship HMHS Glenart Castle on 25 October 1915. By this time he had lost half his weight and was in a bad state. Despite the best efforts of the medical staff aboard, in particular that of Matron Frances Hope Logie Reddoch, Martin died of heart failure just under two hours later. He was three months short of his 15th birthday. Martin was buried at sea and is commemorated on the Lone Pine Memorial on Gallipoli. The day after his death, Matron Reddoch wrote a heartfelt letter to Martin's mother back in Australia about her young son.

While he may not have been the youngest Australian to serve during the First World War, James Martin is considered the youngest to have died on active service.

(Source: The Australian War Memorial)

Reginald Garth, a 12 year old Perth boy who stowed away on the transport RMS Mooltan. His three brothers and father enlisted for the First World War and he wanted be part of what he thought might be an adventure.